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HOPE 2005
International Conference on Alcohol/Drug Abuse, HIV/AIDS, Environment, Population and Human Rights
 
 
Day 2
 
  4th November 2005
  INAUGURAL SESSION:
 
  Chair: Mr. Bhavnesh Sawhney
 
  Address by Guests of Honour: 10.21 - 10.25
  Dr. Barbara Schofield, Terence Cardinal Cooke Health Care Center, New York, USA
(Dr. Barbara Schofield is the attending Pediatrician at Specialty Hospital TCCHCC for children with complex medical needs and developmental disabilities.)
10.00 - 10.03
 
Prof. Akim J. Mturi, University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
(Prof. Akim J. Mturi is Associate Professor of Demography in the School of Development Studies at the University of KwaZulu-Natal in Durban, South Africa)
10.08 - 10.11
 
  Dr. Ahmed Ali Abdelrahim, Crown Prince Court, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates 10.36 - 10.40
Professor Jacques Fortin, Lille University, France
(Professor Jacques Fortin, MD, PHD, pediatrician, is currently Professor of Health Education Sciences, Department of Public Health, School of Medecine, at Lille University, France).
10.12 - 10.15
Ms. Ruba Al Hassan, United Nations Development Programme, UAE
(Ms. Ruba Al Hassan is the Human Development Programme Coordinator for the United Nations Development Programme in the UAE.)
10.16 - 10.19
Vote of thanks 10.22 - 10.25
SCIENTIFIC SESSION No. 1.
Chair: Mrs. Ravena Hinduja
Speaker No. 1

10.26 - 10.50

Dr. Siegfried Van Duffel
Ghent University, Belgium.

Bio-data:- Dr. Siegfried Van Duffel is a lecturer at Groningen University (The Netherlands), and researcher at Ghent University. He has published in several international journals, including The Journal of Political Philosophy and Critical Review.

Title of Presentation:- Natural Rights of Subsistence
Abstract:- Human rights, it is often said, are a "product of the culture of the West". Not being a relativist, the author, nevertheless would like to point to a conceptual relation between natural rights theories and some elements in the culture wherein these theories were first developed. In this paper, he focused on one of these theories: i.e. the theory that grants all people a right to basic necessities. The fundamental rationale behind this natural right is the intuition that God created each human being with a specific purpose. The secular version of this intuition is that each human being has a purpose with his or her life, and this generates duty on other human beings. It was argued that a non-religious theory of natural rights to subsistence will entail morally objectionable consequences. One reason for this is that the secular theory is unable to delineate the extent of other people's duties to assist.
Speaker No. 2

10.51 - 11.15

Dr. Tulshi D. Saha
National Institutes of Health, USA.
Bio-data:- Dr. Tulshi D. Saha is currently working as an Epidemiologist/Survey Statistician at the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), USA. His research interests include psychometric properties of alcohol and other substance use disorders, with emphasis on statistical modeling.
Title of Presentation:- Assessing Alcohol Problems Continuum: Epidemiology of Alcohol Use and Dependence in the US

Abstract:- This study applied Item Response Theory (IRT) to examine the psychometric properties of the DSM-IV alcohol use and dependence criteria, using data from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism's 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Using the nationally representative sample of 43,093 adults, data were analyzed for regular current drinkers (n=22,526). Results from this study revealed that the criteria reflecting symptoms of DSM-IV abuse were as relevant as criteria reflecting symptoms of dependence to determining the overall extent of alcohol-related problems.

Speaker No. 3

11.16 - 11.40

Dr. Deshratn Asthana
University of Miami - Miller School of Medicine, USA.
Bio-data:- Dr. Deshratn Asthana is Associate Professor of Psychiatry and Medicine, and Director, Laboratory for Clinical and Biological Studies, University of Miami - Miller School of Medicine, USA.

Title of Presentation:- Drug Resistance: Ensuring Access and Effective Use of Antiretrovirals in Resource-Limited Settings

Abstract:- The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to remarkable advances in the treatment of HIV infection. Unfortunately, a high number of patients fail therapy. When this happens, it is often assumed that viral resistance has developed to all drugs being used and this necessitates a change in the therapeutic regimen. Because there is a high incidence of cross-resistance among the different agents in the three classes of antiretroviral agents that are currently available, the options for new regimens are frequently limited. This lecture examined current knowledge, practices in monitoring drug resistance and outlined the guidelines for performing these assays.
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS 11.41 - 11.55
SCIENTIFIC SESSION No. 2.
Chair: Mrs. Ravena Hinduja
Speaker No. 1 11.56 - 12.20
Dr. Nirupa Borges
Mumbai Districts AIDS Control Society, India
Bio-data:- Dr. Nirupa Borges is the Project Director of Mumbai Districts AIDS Control Society, and Prof. & Head of Dept. of Medicine, T.N.Medical College, Mumbai, India.
Title of Presentation:- Overview of the MDACS activities
Abstract:- The author who is the Project Director of Mumbai Districts AIDS Control Society, provided an overview of her organization's activities in this presentation.
Speaker No. 2

12.21 - 12.45

Dr. Yusuf Matcheswala
Masina Hospital, Mumbai, India.
Bio-data:- Dr. Yusuf Matcheswala is a practicing psychiatrist at Masina Hospital and J.J Hospital, Mumbai.
Title of Presentation:- My Masina experience in treating dual disorders.
Abstract:- The author who is the Head of the Department of Psychiatry at Masina hospital, spoke of his experiences, in this presentation.
Speaker No. 3

12.46 - 13.10

Dr. S.K. Singh and Dr. Marlene Berg
International Institute for Population Sciences, India, and Institute for Community Research, USA
Bio-data:- Dr. Shri Kant Singh holds a Ph.D in Statistics from BHU and is currently working extensively in the area of HIV/AIDS. His areas of expertise include Migration Models, Rural-Urban Migration & Return Migration and its impact on potential spread of HIV/AIDS and Evaluation of Intervention programmes.
Along with Dr. Marlene Berg, from the Institute for Community Research in United States, Dr. Singh serves as PI on the NIAAA sponsored study entitled "Alcohol, sexual risk and HIV Prevention in Mumbai, India".
Title of Presentation:- Understanding Alcohol and Sex Risk among Youth in three Slum Communities in Mumbai, India
Abstract:- This paper presented summary data gathered through a qualitative/quantitative ethnographic study of the psychosocial and contextual determinants of risky sexual behavior among adolescents in three low-income communities in Mumbai and discussed the formative research strategies that are being used to increase understanding of the context and opportunity structures which put youth from these communities at risk. A presentation of methods used in this context-specific research illustrated the importance of generating community and individual level data to formulate culturally-appropriate, sustainable approaches to multi-level interventions for combating the combined risks of drinking and unsafe sex practices that can lead to STD/HIV.
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS 13.11 - 13.25
LUNCH 13.26 - 14.00
SCIENTIFIC SESSION No. 3.
Chair: Dr.Meghna Vithlani
Speaker No. 1 14.01 - 14.25
Ms. Laila Yousef Al Hassan
Environment Agency - Abu Dhabi, UAE.
Bio-data:- As Senior Editor at the Environment Agency - Abu Dhabi, Ms. Laila Al Hassan has been responsible for planning and implementing environmental awareness campaigns in the local press. She holds a Bachelors in Communication from the American University in Washington DC, USA as well as an MA in Tourism, Environment and Development from King's College London, UK.
Title of Presentation:- Empowering a Society With Environmental Education and Awareness
Abstract:- With increasing habitat loss and the rapid pace of development threatening the environment in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), effective awareness and environmental educational programmes become imperative to garner the cooperation of various targeted audiences in implementing effective protection measures. The Environment Agency - Abu Dhabi launched several programmes in 1998, which are carried out by its Environmental Education and Awareness Division. The Division also motivates the general public, women, fishermen and the corporate sector, besides organizing exhibitions and conferences on endangered species in which the public also participates. This paper examined the effectiveness of these efforts.
Speaker No. 2

14.26 - 14.50

Dr. Anwar Jeewa
Minds Alive Rehabilitation Centre, South Africa.
Bio-data:- Dr. Anwar Jeewa is a dentist qualified in India, who has had a substance abuse problem for 17 years. He is now sober for 8 years and has been inspired from his experience to research substance abuse and to set up and manage a rehabilitation centre in Durban, South Africa.
Title of Presentation:- Treatment for Substance Abuse in the 21st Century: An Empowerment Model
Abstract:- The web of illusion and disillusionment that weaves the substance dependent's body, mind and spirit together catches almost everyone in its sphere and makes it one of the most challenging and complicated issues facing today's clinician. Just as a web may be at once inviting, invisible and deadly for the unsuspecting, a lack of knowledge regarding addiction can be time consuming, frustrating and ultimately destructive in the therapeutic setting. Due to the interwoven symptomology throughout the body, mind and spirit of the substance dependent, our treatment must also be multidimensional and interconnected. There is a need to explore best practice treatment models for substance dependents in residential treatment centres and that formed the topic of this paper.
Speaker No. 3

14.51 - 15.15

Ms. Mary Crewe and Mr. Pierre Brouard
Centre for the Study of AIDS, University of Pretoria, South Africa.
Bio-data:- Ms. Mary Crewe is the Director of The Centre for the Study of AIDS at the University of Pretoria. She was on the team that drafted the National AIDS Plan of 1994, a founder member and co-chair of the AIDS Consortium and NACOSA and was the chair of the National Department of Education AIDS and Lifeskills Committee for HIV/AIDS education in schools. She has links with local, regional and international tertiary institutions, has published a book on AIDS and authored many articles.
Mr. Pierre Brouard has a Master's Degree in Clinical Psychology from the University of the Witwatersrand. He has worked in the field of HIV/AIDS for the past 15 years, and is currently employed by the Centre for the Study of AIDS at the University of Pretoria as the Deputy Director/Manager of the programme.
Title of Presentation:- HIV and AIDS - the view from the epicenter
Abstract:- South Africa has been renowned as one of the countries with the worst HIV and AIDS epidemic in the world, as well as having one of the fastest growing epidemics. This presentation looked at how the response to this epidemic has been shaped by a number of forces and what some of the key lessons are that can be learned from the South Africa response. The Centre for the Study of AIDS based at the University of Pretoria has been centrally involved in the South African AIDS response. The presentation focused on the research done by the CSA on stigma and human rights, on the impact on the education system and on the complex issue of HIV testing and ARV treatments. It discussed the implications of these findings on the further development of the AIDS epidemic and took from them important observations and lessons for other countries, such as India, that are in the beginnings of the development of the epidemic.
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS 15.16 - 15.30
TEA 15.31 - 15.45
SCIENTIFIC SESSION No. 4.
Chair: Mr. Ajay Mehta
Speaker No. 1 15.46 - 16.10
Dr. Margaret Liqing Liu
Business School, Coventry University, UK.
Bio-data:- Dr Margaret Liqing Liu is a lecturer in law at Coventry University, United Kingdom. She is a supervisor of international human rights law and international criminal law at LLM level. She also teaches LLB public law. Her research interests include constitutional & administrative law and human rights law, which has been sustained over the past decade and resulted in two books and some papers.
Title of Presentation:- Universal human rights: A challenge to state sovereignty?
Abstract:- Classically, international law is the system that protects the rights of sovereign state to be free from external aggression, and to set out a framework by which the relationship between states may be regulated. Within this system, state sovereignty and domestic jurisdiction had enjoyed great strength. However, the Nuremberg Trial gave a real existence to the concept of human rights, challenging the Westphalian principles. It lays down the principle that anyone who violated the most fundamental of human rights should be tried under the authority of international law. This paper examined a fundamental contradiction between the conflicting principles of absolute state sovereignty and human rights jus cogens. It considered international obligation erga omnes imposed on sovereign states by international instruments, and traced international leading cases on this aspect. The articles drew certain conclusions, particularly that human rights are instruments that seek to limit the scope of state sovereignty.
Speaker No. 2

16.11 - 16.35

Mr. Keith R. Evans
Government of South Australia.
Bio-data:- Mr. Keith Evans has worked in the prevention and treatment of drug dependence and alcohol abuse for over 25 years, based in the United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand. Keith Evans is Principal Advisor, Drugs Policy to the South Australian Government. He is also Executive Director of Drug & Alcohol Services South Australia (DASSA) which is a Government organisation responsible for policy development, prevention, intervention and treatment/rehabilitation services.
Title of Presentation:- Private Public Partnership - A Key Strategy
Abstract:- The global battle against the HIV/AIDS pandemic is of such importance that we must consider the capacity of all stakeholders to play a part in finding solutions for the benefit of individuals affected by the disease and populations shattered by the far reaching impacts on all facets of society. The beverage alcohol industry is one contributor to reducing harms whose capacity has not as yet been fully explored. This paper provided an overview of the rationale for engaging with the beverage alcohol industry as an active participant in the global fight against HIV/AIDS. It identified the place of alcohol abuse as a risk factor in terms of the prevalence of HIV/AIDS as well as in the management of the disease process. The crucial place of sensible and sustainable evidence-based national alcohol policies was also explored. This paper emphasized the need for strategic and creative partnering to be at the forefront of an innovative strategy for combating HIV/AIDS.
Speaker No. 3

16.36 - 17.00

Dr. Ali Asghar Kolahi
Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Science, Iran.
Bio-data:- Dr. Ali Asghar Kolahi is Assistant Professor of Community Medicine, in the Department of Health and Community Medicine, Medical School, Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Science,Tehran, Iran.
Title of Presentation:- Condom-related Knowledge to Preventing HIV/AIDS and its Usage among single men in sample of technical Universities students in Tehran-Iran
Abstract:- Usage of condom is known as a most effective way for preventing HIV/AIDS. Surveys in Iran showed that knowledge about prevention of HIV/AIDS is high, but the effectiveness of this knowledge in practice is unknown. This paper examined the findings of a survey conducted in Iran.
Speaker No. 4

17.01 - 17.25

Dr. Ahmed Ali Abdelrahim
Crown Prince Court, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.
Bio-data:- Dr. Ahmed Ali Abdelrahim is the Medical Advisor at the Crown Prince Court, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, and provides research assistance and medical advice to over 500 patients on a weekly basis.
Title of Presentation:- Success of Malaria control in Gazeira \ Sudan
Abstract:- Malaria is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Sudan with an annual estimate of 7.5 million cases and 35000 deaths. It accounts for 20-40% of the total outpatient attendance and around 40% of admissions. Plasmodium falciparum is the predominant species and the dominating malaria vectors include A.arabiensis, A.gambiae and A.funestus. The author discussed the techniques adopted for successful control of the disease.
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

17.26 - 17.40

3 parallel interactive scientific sessions were held from 11.56 to 17.40 in the
Forum and Capitol Hall, Taj President Hotel.

PARALLEL SCIENTIFIC SESSION No. 1.
Chair: Mr. Ajay Mehta
Speaker No. 1

11.56 - 12.20

Prof. Farhood Golmohammadi
Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, Iran.
Bio-data:- Prof. Farhood Golmohammadi is a faculty member at Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
Title of Presentation:- The Communication Process in Agricultural Extension : A Viewpoint regarding Sustainable Development
The aim of this article was the presentation of a descriptive and functional framework of the role of Extension as a communication process in Sustainable Development and specially its forward challenges in the Twenty - first century, and its endeavours with regarding to the vast worldwide changes in technologies, economics, communities, culture, policy, etc. It showed the appropriate place of Agricultural Extension in facing upto these challenges and expressed its role in Sustainable Development.
Speaker No. 2

12.21 - 12.45

Prof. Abongile Sipondo
University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
Bio-data:- Prof. Abongile Sipondo completed an LLB at the University of the Western Cape and an LLM at the University of Cape Town. He is currently employed by the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg in South Africa as a Law Lecturer.
Title of Presentation:- The Impact of Trade Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) on the Right to Health in Africa
Health, as a fundamental human right is to be enjoyed by all. Every human being is entitled to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health conducive to living a life in dignity. Problems arise when trying to reconcile patents and the right to health. Several international and regional Human Rights Instruments guarantee people of the right to health. But the introduction of TRIPS has had negative effects on developing countries, especially Africa. This presentation endeavored to show that interpretation of TRIPS is a problem because this agreement hinders the research of new drugs in developing countries and thus infringes on the right to health. It pointed out that conflicts between TRIPS and the right to health should be resolved, for the benefit of human kind. Public health should be given priority and not commercial gain.
Speaker No. 3

12.46 - 13.10

Mr. Adegbolagun Adebanjo Perez
African Students' Tourism Organisation, Nigeria
Bio-data:- Adegbolagun Adebanjo Perez, is CEO AFrican Students' Tourism Organisation [Perez Tours] www.pereztours.org . They are a team of forward looking undergraduates from various tertiary institutions across Africa that believe in broadening the educational horizon of students via tourism.Mr. Perez is a graduate of Materials & Metallurgical Engineering of the Federal University of Technology Akure, Ondo State, NIgeria.
Title of Presentation:- The Role of Students in the War against the Spread of HIV/AIDS
This paper pointed out hat it has always been difficult in studying the major cause of HIV/AIDS in our world today, as this varies in different perspective from researchers to philosophers and writers who dazzle over the cause of this killer-disease that has led to the death of so many lives and left others with incurable diseases. Whatever perspective they study, research and write or from whatever summation their argument lies or arrives at it would surely bring ones mind to the subject matter. It calls for critical analysis of the reason why the world today pays so dearly in the outbreak of this killer-disease in a community while the cause of this outbreak could actually have been prevented if some group of people had been thoroughly orientated, this orientation would in turn leave no surface for any possible outbreak of the killer-disease. This paper examined and evaluated the role of youth in the war against HIV/AIDS.
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS 13.11 - 13.25
LUNCH 13.26 - 14.00
PARALLEL SCIENTIFIC SESSION No. 2.
Chair: Mrs. Ravena Hinduja
Speaker No. 1 14.01 - 14.25
Ms. Tatyana Semikop and Ms. Olga Kostyuk
Public movement "Faith, Hope, Love", Ukraine.
Bio-data:- Ms. Tatyana Semikop, is the Head of public movement "Faith, Hope, Love", Member of the board of the Ukrainian Family Planning Association's Presidium, Member of PCB UNAIDS in 2002, and Member of CCM Global Found in Ukraine. Ms. Olga Kostyuk, has had a long stint in the Odessa Police Department. She now works with the Public movement "Faith, Hope, Love" as a coordinator of projects connected to prevention of HIV/AIDS, rendering help and support of people living with HIV.
Title of Presentation:- Possibilities of NGO to support, care and advocate the people living with HIV/AIDS
Abstract:- Odessa is a big sea terminal at the Black sea shore. Since 1995 an epidemic of AIDS started in Odessa. Up to now more than 10 000 people are registered as having HIV/AIDS. Regarding the epidemic, Odessa takes the 1st place in Ukraine. 70 % people living with HIV/AIDS are IDUs. Before 1998 the main direction on which the struggle against HIV/AIDS was carried out was prevention of the HIV/AIDS, but nowadays due to increase in the number of people who live with AIDS, the priority is care, support in receiving medical service and advocacy of rights of these people. The authors discussed the different ways in which their organization supports and helps people living with AIDS.
Speaker No. 2

14.26 - 14.50

Prof. Mansour Karajibani
Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
Bio-data:- Prof. Mansour Karajibani is a Nutritionist, Diet Consultant and a university lecturer at the Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
Title of Presentation:- Study of Knowledge and attitude in Students about HIV
Abstract:- In Iran, the risk of HIV is less than others countries because of islamic belief in religion and cultural conditions. It is important to decrease of HIV prevalence by promoting the level of knowledge and attitude in the population. The aim of this particular study conducted in Iran, was to determine knowledge and attitude of the students about HIV. The paper discussed the findings.
Speaker No. 3

14.51 - 15.15

Dr. Sangeeta Trama
Punjabi University, Patiala, India.
Bio-data:- Dr. Sangeeta Trama is a senior lecturer from the Department of Psychology at Punjabi University, Patiala, India.
Title of Presentation:- Environmental Hazards to Health
Abstract:- Environmental hazards are posing a great threat to the health of everyone. Air pollution, water pollution, electrical pollution, family environment, environmental disruptions (like floods, droughts, fire, earthquakes, seaquakes, storms), industrial outputs (like gases, liquids, solid wastes), personal space, black hole in ozone layer, greenhouse effect, acid rain, X-rays, ultraviolet radiation, sunburn, global warming, food preservatives, noise, crowding, chemical terrorism, sanitation, etc. are some of the environmental factors, which are affecting both physically and psychologically. An attempt was made in this paper to review the causes and prevention of their consequences.
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS 15.16 - 15.30
TEA 15.31 - 15.45
PARALLEL SCIENTIFIC SESSION No. 3.
Chair: Mrs. Bonny Riby-Williams
Speaker No. 1 15.46 - 16.10
Dr.Shivnath Ghosh
Himachal Pradesh University, India.
Bio-data:- Dr.Shivnath Ghosh is a professor in the Dept. of Psychology, H.P. University, Shimla, India.
Title of Presentation:- Developing Adolescents Education Programme on Drugs, Alcohol and HIV/AIDS
Abstract:- The consequences associated with adolescents' alcohol abuse are significant. Globally the epidemics of alcohol abuse and HIV/AIDS are increasingly singled out as major areas of concern for adolescent heath. Literature suggests that HIV prevention programme for youth should also focus on alcohol abuse as well as other drug abuse and sexual risk behaviour (Fuller, 2002). Behaviour linked with alcohol/drug abuse has been identified as single most significant factor in spread of HIV infection. Adolescents in India are either ill informed or not well informed about their health, sexuality or physical well-being. Studies in India, as well as in the West have identified gaps in adolescents and young adult's knowledge and beliefs about alcohol/drug abuse and HIV/AIDS. Keeping in view these facts a study was conducted so identify major theme areas in order to develop new and effective educational programme for adolescents on interrelated epidemics of drug/alcohol and HIV/AIDS. The paper discussed the conclusions of this study.
Speaker No. 2

16.11 - 16.35

Dr. Aravind P Pillai
Sangath, Goa, India.
Bio-data:- Dr. Aravind P Pillai, MBBS MPH is the Project Coordinator for SAAHAS (Epidemiological study on alcohol and health problems in Goa in collaboration with Alcohol Research Group Berkeley USA funded by NIAAA).
Title of Presentation:- Alcohol use and commercial sex in Goa
Abstract:- In this paper the author examined the use of alcohol by men within several contexts of commercial sex in Goa. Data are presented from an ongoing study on alcohol use patterns and HIV risk. Data include qualitative interviews and focus group discussions with rural and urban adults. Alcohol emerged as an important factor in increased access and completion of commercial sex transactions. Men were noted going to bars in red-light areas prior to visiting commercial sex workers (CSWs). Bars also functioned as meeting places for CSW's or their agents. A primary reason for drinking cited was to help tolerate unhygienic and disagreeable conditions in which visits with CSWs occur. Implications for public health were also discussed.
Speaker No. 3

16.36 - 17.00

Ms. Jyoti.A.Das
Osmania University, Hyderabad, India.
Bio-data:- Ms. Jyoti.A.Das, is a Law Student of Osmania University, Hyderabad, with diplomas in International Law and Cyber Law.
Title of Presentation:- India and Right to Education
Abstract:- Every country would agree that education is the most integral part of a citizen. But the Indian picture is far behind. The country having MNC's and IT boom can't be labeled developed when more than half the population is illiterate. Policies of center and state governments may seem perfectly framed but implementation and result becomes insignificant. The paper examined the situation and suggested remedial measures.
Speaker No. 4

17.01 - 17.25

Prof. Farzaneh Montazeri
Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Iran.
Bio-data:- Prof. Farzaneh Montazeri is a faculty member in Nutrition Department of Zahedan University of medical sciences. This presentation was made on her behalf, by her husband Prof. Mansour Karajibani.
Title of Presentation:- Study of nutritional status in addicts referring to center of drug dependency treatment of Zahedan
Abstract:- It is necessary to consider a proper and good diet based on characteristics of individuals to ensure that it leads to different physiological changes, especially in addicts, whose need is health, inspiration, supporting and good nutrition. Their appetite usually has decreased and is not very good. It seems starvation affects physico-psychological state of substance dependency. Aim of this study was determining of nutritional state based on anthropometric and consumption patterns of food groups. The findings were discussed in this paper.
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

17.26 - 17.40

 
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